What is a mixture? Properties, Examples and Types of Mixtures
You most likely run over one or different types of a mixture in your everyday life. The air that you inhale is the commonest form of a mixture. Did you realize that? Today, we will look into the impure substances or mixtures, as they are normally called.
What is a Mixture?
Mixtures are substances that are made up of two or more different types of substances. Physical means can be used to separate them. A solution of salt and water, a combination of sugar and water, various gases, air, and so on are examples. The different components of any combination do not unite through any chemical changes. As a result, the components retain their distinct characteristics.
Examples of Mixtures
Crude oil: A mixture of organic compounds (mainly hydrocarbons)
Seawater: A mixture of various salt and water.
Air: a mixture of various gases like oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, argon, neon, etc.
Ink: A mixture of coloured dyes.
Gunpowder: A mixture of sulfur, potassium nitrate and carbon.
Properties of Mixtures
The constituents of a mixture are not present in a fixed ratio. The various characteristics of mixtures are discussed below.
There is no chemical force acting between the two or more substances that are mixed, but they still exist together.
They can either be heterogeneous or homogeneous in nature.
The proportions of the substances vary in an indefinite manner.
The properties of the mixture depending upon the individual components.
The constituents of the mixture can be separated by physical methods.
Boiling point and the melting point of the mixture depends upon the characteristic of the constituents.
During the formation of a mixture, there is no change in energy.
All the states of matter (solid, liquid, gases) can combine to form mixtures.
Types of Mixtures
There are two main types of mixtures: homogeneous mixtures and heterogeneous mixtures. The types of mixtures are discussed below.
1) Homogeneous mixtures: A mixture which has uniform composition and properties throughout its mass is called a homogeneous mixture. Examples: Sugar solution, salt solution etc.
Examples of homogeneous mixture are - Alloys, Salt in water.
2) Heterogeneous mixture: A mixture which has different composition and properties in different parts of their mass is called heterogeneous mixture. Examples: Sand mixed with salt, sugar in oil etc.
Examples of heterogeneous mixture are - Gun powder, Oil in water.
Difference between Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Mixture
1. Homogeneous mixture
It has a uniform composition
It has only one phase
It can’t be separated out physically
‘homo’ means the same
Example: a mixture of alcohol and water
2. Heterogeneous mixture
It has a non-uniform composition
There are two or more phases
It can be separated out physically
‘hetero’ means different
Example: a mixture of sodium chloride and sand
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